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The Profitero eCommerce glossary

A guide to over 200 terms (and counting!) you need to know to become an industry expert.


“First-party”; refers to manufacturers or vendors that sell to Amazon in a traditional supplier/retailer trading relationship


“Third-party”; refers to manufacturers, merchants or resellers that sell via Amazon’s third-party Marketplace


(third-party logistics) A type of supply chain management strategy in which brands outsource elements of their distribution, warehousing or fulfillment services to outside companies rather than operating entirely in house


A+ content
Amazon’s term for Enhanced Manufacturer Content, indicated by the content under the header “From the Manufacturer”

A/B testing
A method of testing website or product content that involves creating two versions and comparing which one is the most successful; this term is also referred to as split testing

Content that typically appears before a shopper must scroll, and includes the product title, product image(s), bullet content and description

The practice of making or designing websites and software usable by as many people as possible, including those with disabilities or impairments

Add-on item
Item is unavailable to be bought & shipped individually on Amazon; can only purchase the item when filling a larger order (e.g., $25 in U.S., £20 in U.K.); Add-on Item designation can signal that a product may be falling below acceptable profitability levels

Add to cart rate
The percentage of online shoppers that visit a specific product description page and add it to their basket, displaying an intent to purchase

ACOS—Advertising cost of sales
An Amazon term for the percentage of money spent on sponsored advertising compared to product sales; equivalent to the percent of total ad spend divided by total sales

A process or set of rules a computer must follow during a calculation or other problem-solving operation, most commonly used to refer to SEO or retailer search placement practices

ALT tags
Text displayed when product images are unable to load

Amazon Advertising
Amazon's self-service advertising platform; in September 2018, the company rebranded all of its AMG, AMS and AAP features under the Amazon Advertising umbrella

Amazon Attribution
A measurement tool that allows organizations to analyze how their non-Amazon marketing and advertising efforts impact their performance on Amazon, such as search, social media, and email marketing

Amazon Best Seller Ranking (BSR)
An Amazon Best Sellers Rank is a number that nearly every product in its multi-million product catalog is awarded once the item has had at least one sale. For that reason, the BSR is a good indicator of how well a product is currently selling on Amazon. Although Amazon doesn’t reveal exactly how the Best Sellers Rank is calculated, there are a number of factors that contribute to it, including:

  • Current and historic sales
  • Product price changes and promotions
  • Competitive products

Amazon Born to Run Program
Amazon program that gives vendors the opportunity to sell large initial buy quantities of new products. In exchange, brands must invest 10% of the launch buy quantity cost in Amazon’s marketing services and provide full return rights for unsold products after the ten-week period.

Amazon Brand Registry
Amazon program that helps brands protect intellectual property by providing accurate representation of trademarked brands on Amazon

Amazon Choice
A product designation provided by Amazon that acts as a recommendation for Amazon shoppers for specific search terms. Amongst other variables, products are chosen based on positive reviews, competitive pricing and availability for instant shipping

Amazon Demand-side Platform (DSP)
An advertising platform that allows brands to purchase display and video ads for all Amazon-owned channels using their customer targeting data; previously known as Amazon Advertising Platform

Amazon Live
A digital live streaming service where Amazon sellers can host livestreams to promote their products and boost awareness

Amazon Project Zero
Amazon program that empowers brands to help drive counterfeits to zero through use of automated protections, a self-service counterfeit removal tool and product serialization

Amazon Transparency
Amazon's item-level authentication service that enables brand owners to identify their products with unique codes to prove the origin and authenticity of the products they sell, thereby protecting their brand and customers from counterfeits

Amazon Verified Purchase
Product review notation that signifies Amazon has verified that the person writing the review purchased the product at Amazon and didn't receive the product at a deep discount

Amazon Vine
Amazon’s internal review generation service that allows participating vendors to submit free products for review by Vine Voices

Amazon's own-label product line, which includes items such as HDMI cables, batteries and audio cables

AMG—Amazon Media Group
Premium advertising offer within Amazon's vendor services; part of Amazon Advertising as of September 2018

AMS—Amazon Marketing Services
Amazon’s self-service platform for paid search; part of Amazon Advertising as of September 2018

AOV—Average order value
The average monetary amount a customer spends when placing an order with your brand; this can be calculated by dividing sales revenue by the total number of orders

APASS—Amazon Packaging Support and Supplier Network
List of companies and labs that help design, supply and test packaging to meet Amazon’s Packaging Certifications

API— Application Program Interface
A computing interface that defines interactions, known as calls or requests, between multiple software programs like what types of calls can be made, data formats used, and conventions to follow

ARA—Amazon Retail Analytics
Amazon's self-service data and reporting platform offered as part of Vendor Central. Comes in free ("Basic") and paid ("Premium") versions

ASIN—Amazon Standard Identification Number
A 10-character alphanumeric unique identifier that's assigned by and its partners

ASP—Average Selling Price
The average price at which an item was sold over a given period

ATV—Average Transaction Value
The average amount of money spent by a customer on a single transaction, calculated by dividing the total value of all transactions by the number of transactions


B2B—Business to Business
Commerce transactions between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer

B2B2C—Business to Business to Consumer
Transactions that combines B2B and B2C for complete product or service transaction

B2C—Business to Consumer
Transactions between a company and consumers who are the end-users of its products or services

Enhanced content, including supplementary images, videos, comparison matrices, among others, which a shopper must scroll down product page to view

BI—Business Intelligence
Technologies used for the data analysis of business information; BI platforms provide historical, current and typically predictive views of business operations

BOPIS—Buy Online Pick Up in Store
Sometimes referred to as click-and-collect; a hybrid eCommerce model where customers order goods online and pick them up in a store or another specified location

Brand management
A marketing term that refers to strategies companies take to increase public perception or value of their brand, including customer loyalty and positive brand association

Branded keywords
Search keywords that include a specific brand in the product title

Brick and mortar
A term that describes a company that sells products to consumers via physical store locations

Budget fluidity
A marketing campaign strategy where the overall goals and messaging are fixed, but the total budget is free to change throughout the duration of the campaign

Bullet content
Bulleted above-the-fold content that provides a product’s key features and benefits

Buy Box
Box on a product page where customers add a product to their shopping carts with the simple quantity dropdown and “Add to Cart” button; Amazon will highlight either itself or another merchant (i.e., a 3P seller) as the default seller for a product

Buy Button
An element of distributed commerce, a Buy Button lets vendors generate an embeddable product card and checkout that can be placed on a non-retail website

Buy now, pay later
The option for customers to receive goods at the point of purchase, but pay for those goods incrementally over time, sometimes with added interest

BOGO—buy one, get one
A promotional sales tactic that involves offering two items for the price of one

The practice of brands packaging multiple items or services together as a single, combined product often for a lower price than purchasing each item individually

Buyer persona
A fabricated representation of a company’s ideal customer, including demographics, behaviors, and goals, based on market research and sales data


Cart abandonment
A situation where a customer adds products to their online shopping cart but does not follow through with a completed purchase

Case Pack
The total quantity of items in a case; Case Packs are sometimes broken into smaller packages, referred to as Inner Packs

Category rankings
The ranking of products as they appear when shoppers browse to specific department pages or category pages

CGC—Consumer-Generated Content
Content created by consumers (including images, ratings & reviews, and Q&A) displayed on product detail pages

Software application used to conduct online chat conversations in lieu of direct contact with a live agent, often used for common customer service tasks

Sometimes referred to as BOPIS (buy online pickup in store); a hybrid eCommerce model where customers order goods online and pick them up in a store or another specified location

Click and mortar
A term that describes a company that sells products to consumers via personal website, online retailers and at least one physical store

Comparison matrix or grid
Matrix comparing products within a product line or brand family

Ensuring no gaps exist between expected content (content referenced from your digital asset management provider) and actual content collected from a product page

Conversational commerce
The act of online shopping through means of digital conversation, such as chatbots, messaging apps or virtual assistants like Amazon Alexa

CPC—Cost per conversion
The dollar value associated with getting a customer to make a successful conversion - by making a purchase, signing up for a service, completing a call to action, etc.

Conversion rate
The percentage of glance views (or traffic) a product detail page gets that results in a purchase

CPFR—Collaborative Planning Forecasting & Replenishment
Concept intended to enhance supply chain integration, including inventory management and product replenishment, through joint visibility and joint business practices between a supplier and their retail customer; a trademark of GS1 US

CRaP—Can’t Realize any Profit
Items that are unprofitable to Amazon and may be at risk of being delisted

An advertising method that recommends additional complementary or related products to a customer based on items added to their cart

CTA—Call to action
A marketing term used to describe an advertisement or piece of content that prompts viewers to take a specific next step

Curbside pickup
A service strategy where customers can purchase items ahead of time online, or virtually, and pull up their vehicle to a physical retail location where employees will bring them their order

Customer acquisition cost
The dollar value associated with winning a customer to make a purchase

Cyber Monday
A retailer holiday that exists to encourage consumers to shop online through massive sales and promotions; occurs on the Monday after Thanksgiving


D2C or DTC—Direct to Consumer
A business and distribution model involving brands selling directly to consumers, typically through their own eCommerce channel (, catalogs, field sales networks or other direct channels

DAM—Digital Asset Management
A category of product information and content technology, commonly used to centrally manage digital assets including pack shots, marketing and lifestyle imagery, videos, banner ads, and more. May also allow for distribution and syndication of product content to retailers

Data lake
Repository for storing all enterprise-wide data, including raw data and transformed data typically used for tasks such as reporting, visualization, analytics and machine learning

Data visualization
The graphical representation or information and data using visual elements like charts, graphs, maps, etc.

Dark store
A distribution center, typically located in a large warehouse, that is used to fulfill online shopping orders or to allow consumers to collect items they have ordered online.

Digital shelf
Where and how products are displayed online; similar to the physical shelf in stores, it’s how consumers discover products

Digitally native brands
Brands born on the Internet that typically control their own distribution

Display advertising
A form of advertising that is done through visuals, like images, banners or videos, on social media networks and third-party websites

Direct fulfillment
An eCommerce supply chain management method where retailers do not keep inventory in-house, instead the retailer transfers customer orders to a third party that handles the inventory, fulfillment and shipping; this term is also referred to as dropshipping

Distributed commerce
Platforms that embed commerce in non-retail environments, allowing consumers to shop and buy from digital display ad, recipe guide, social media or other digital touchpoints

Distribution center
A specialized warehouse or building that is stocked with a variety of products that are then redistributed to retailers, wholesalers, or directly to customers


Items that are individually packaged (i.e., in contrast to being bundled) for resale online

EFP—Exclusively for Prime
On Amazon, the product purchase is limited to Amazon Prime members only; EFP designation can signal that a product may be falling below acceptable profitability levels

EC—Enhanced Content
Supplemental visual and textual content suppliers can provide some retailers, typically at an additional cost

Endless aisle
Term for the virtual merchandising of an endless assortment of products available online

Engaged review
A review left as a result of engagement with the shopper by the brand or retailer, and typically must be disclosed as such


Fair share
Term used by suppliers that refers to capturing online market share equivalent to their offline market share in physical stores

A list of frequently purchased products saved by consumers that they can easily add to a virtual shopping list; often used to avoid the need for searching, browsing or "shopping around"

FBA—Fulfilled by Amazon
Amazon program where Amazon holds third-party (3P) sellers’ inventory at an Amazon fulfillment center for a fee; Amazon handles fulfillment, delivery and customer service for these items; FBA products get access to Prime 2-day shipping, free shipping and other benefits

FFP—Frustration-Free Packaging
Amazon program in which manufacturers can attain “Certified Frustration-Free Packaging” status by providing an optimal eCommerce product packaging experience that is easy to open, protective, low waste and cost effective

First Mover
Retailer that initiates a product’s price drop below the market floor price first during a selected time period

First-party (1P) seller
Refers to manufacturers or vendors that sell to Amazon in a traditional supplier/retailer trading relationship

Flash sale
A business strategy where a retailer offers substantial discounts or promotions for a very short time period

Floor price
A price below which you can’t buy the product, i.e., the product’s lowest price in the marketplace

FMCG—Fast Moving Consumer Goods
Products that are sold quickly and at a relatively low cost, for example, packaged food, beverages, toiletries, cosmetics, over-the-counter drugs, etc.

FMOT—Forever Moments of Truth
Single decision points with recurring transactional outcomes (e.g. decisions to subscribe to or reorder a product)

Retailer(s) that was priced above the market floor price, but then drops its price to meet or match a new lower price of the First Mover

Full funnel
Complete range of marketing strategies, tools and levers used throughout all stages of a shopper's path to a completed online transaction

Full basket
A term for retailers that boast a full range of goods one would find at a supermarket, including perishables


General keywords
Search keywords that do not include a specific brand in the product title

A marketing strategy that involves delivering specific content or promotions to website visitors depending on their location

Glance views
Also called Traffic; the number or volume of views a product detail page receives

Grey market
A situation that occurs when brands approve the manufacturing of their product, but the product is then sold outside of the brand’s authorized distribution channels

GWP—Gift with purchase
A sales tactic that involves offering a free item when a customer makes a purchase, usually used to add value to an order and entice customers


Headless eCommerce
An architecture framework where the front end and back end of the digital commerce application is seperated, allowing for more flexibility and customization for the brand

Headline search ads
A type of advertising campaign through Amazon Advertising (formerly AMS or Amazon Marketing Services) that appears as a banner ad above search results

Hero image
The product image shown on search results’ pages and the default image shown on the product detail page; this term is also referred to as the primary product image


Influencer marketing
A form of social media marketing where brands use paid endorsements or product placements from popular people or organizations within their industry

Inner packs
Related to pack configuration, inner packs are smaller packages that make up a Case Pack (i.e., the total quantity of items in a case)

Also known as stock, this is the complete list of goods and materials that a business has available for sale


Keyword frequency
The absolute or relative search volume for a given keyword

Keyword stuffing
An approach to SEO that involves trying to fit as many keywords as possible into a given piece of content with the goal of improving or influencing search result rankings

KPI—Key performance indicator
A measurable value that organizations use to demonstrate how effectively they  are achieving overall business goals


Landing page
A standalone web page that is dedicated to a specific marketing or advertising effort and often contains a singular goal or call to action

Last mile
A supply chain term referring to the flow of goods from a transportation hub to a final destination (e.g. a home or office)

Lifestyle image
Images that show the product being used in a variety of contexts

Lightning deal
An Amazon promotion that is offered for a short amount of time on a limited stock; they can be found on the Amazon Today’s Deals webpage and are restricted to one per customer until the selected inventory is unavailable or the time period ends

Load test
A quality assurance test that can be performed on retailer websites to identify potential performance bottlenecks, calculate product page loading times and ensure large spikes in consumer traffic can be supported

Losing the Buy Box
Products that lost Amazon’s “Buy Box” default first-party (1P) seller status to a third-party (3P) vendor

An image overlaid on top of a product image by an online retailer; usually used to highlight price promotions

LTL—Less than Truckload
Used for the transportation of small freight or when freight doesn't require the use of an entire trailer; common in eCommerce, LTL shipping can increase product expenses thus lowering item-level profitability


MAP—Minimum Advertised Price
A minimum price unilaterally set by the manufacturer at which resellers cannot advertise below

Type of eCommerce site where products are provided by multiple third parties (3P) with transactions processed by a single marketplace operator, e.g., Amazon Marketplace or Walmart Marketplace

The profit of a sale calculated by subtracting the cost of goods sold and incurred expenses from the product price

MDM—Master Data Management
Method used to define and manage the critical data assets of an organization, ensuring uniformity, accuracy and consistency, in order to provide a single point of reference for an enterprise's shared assets

Micro Fulfillment
Small warehouses, or fulfillment centers, that are compact enough to place anywhere with the goal of fulfilling online orders faster and closer to the customer

Minimum viable economics
Minimum item-level profitability acceptable by Amazon before a product's delisting or CRaP designation

Mobile commerce
A term that refers to using handheld devices, like cell phones and tablets, to go online shopping

MRHI—Mobile Ready Hero Image
A representation of a real world product that may differ from a standard pack shot, but that maintains the majority of the physical pack’s key elements of design, shape and color, and is therefore recognizable on a Digital Shelf.

MSRP—Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Price
Suggested floor price set by the manufacturer; a minimum amount that resellers should not price a product below


Native review
A review left directly on a retailer's site

Negative review
A review typically rated below 3 stars


Type of retail that integrates several different methods of shopping available to consumers, e.g., online, mobile, voice, phone, physical store

Order management system
A software or electronic system used to streamline order entry and processing

Organic review
A review left with no incentive or free sampling involved; reviews that generally trickle in from raving fans or disgruntled consumers

Organic search
Search results that appear based on a retailer’s algorithmic process and are not sponsored or paid by a brand to appear

Organic traffic
Online page views or website visitors that are a result of unpaid search results

The strategy of hiring third party providers to handle certain elements or processes of a business


Page placement
The page of search results on which a product appears

Page ranking
The numerical ranking of a product in a list of search results

Page speed
A measurement of the amount of time it takes for a webpage’s content to load

Partial shipment
A fulfillment method where an order is broken up and sent to the customer in multiple deliveries

Path to purchase
Also known as the shopper journey, it's the cyclical and complex decision-making process that connects consumer demand to what shoppers buy, including all brand and information touchpoints

PDP—Product detail page
The product page that contains the images, description and add-to-cart button

PFP—Prep-Free Packaging
Way products must be sent to Amazon fulfillment centers — e.g., with a scannable barcode, appropriate labeling, and ready to be fulfilled — so no additional preparation is required before shipping by Amazon; non-compliant items could experience a delay in receiving and may be subject to additional charges

PIE—Post-purchase or post-interaction email
Email sent by retailer or brand to consumer following purchase, requesting a review or other feedback

PIM—Product Information Management
Tool used to manage all information required to market and sell products through distribution channels, online and offline; PIM systems generally must support different geographic regions, multi-lingual data, and maintenance and modification of product information within a centralized catalog

PLA—Product listing ads
A type of online advertisement that displays more detailed information about a specific product and typically charges companies on a pay per click basis

POS—Point of sale
The exact location, physical or virtual, where a customer provides payment for a sale

PPA—Price Pack Architecture
Research designed to determine the ideal packaging and price for a product desired by consumers

PPC—Pay per click
An internet advertising model where a website charges a brand for a sponsored advertisement every time a page visitor clicks or interacts with it; This term is also referred to as cost per click (CPC)

Price competition
A product is considered to be in price competition when multiple retailers dropped prices sequentially below the market floor price

Price-to-weight ratio
Metric used to depict a product’s price relative to its weight; also commonly called “Weight & Cube.” Typically, the higher a product’s price-to-weight ratio means the more profitable, all else being equal

Primary product image
The product image shown on search results’ pages and the default image shown on the product detail page; this term is also referred to as a Hero image

Prime Exclusive
Designation for Amazon Products that can only be bought by Amazon Prime members

Private label
Products that are manufactured by one company but sold under another company’s brand

Product assortment
Also referred to as merchandise mix, this is the variety of products that a retailer stocks and sells, online or in-store

Product description
The text description of a product included on the product detail page

Product display ads
A type of advertising campaign through Amazon Advertising (formerly AMS or Amazon Marketing Services) that typically places products on product detail pages underneath the Buy Box

Product launch
The planned, organizational effort of a company to bring a new product or service to market

Purchase order
A commercial document and official offer issued by a buyer to a seller indicating the types, quantities, and agreed prices for products or services


Recurring payment/subscription
The process of automatically paying for and receiving a good or service from a merchant on a prearranged schedule

Usually the primary factor in determining which products appear organically for which search terms and a factor of how closely related a product is to a given keyword

Research online, purchase offline
A trend in consumer behavior where shoppers research product information online and compare various options before going into a physical store and making the purchase

Responsive design
An approach to web design that makes web pages display well on a variety of devices and screen sizes

Retail media
A marketing technique that involves placing advertisements near or at a customer’s point of purchase

Review “recency” or “velocity”
Measurement of the “vintage” of reviews to encourage review content is sustained over time to ensure currency

Review count
The cumulative number of shopper reviews left for a product

Review text
Body or text portion of the review in which consumers write comments, describe experiences with product, or the product’s pros and cons

RFP—Request for Proposal
Document that solicits a proposal from potential suppliers by a company interested in procuring a commodity, service, technology/capability or other asset

Rich content
Interactive content like decision guides for regimented product lines

ROAS—Return on Ad Spend
A term for the total revenue generated from an advertisement divided by the total amount spent on that advertisement; similar to ACOS but is formatted in dollars rather than a percentage

ROPO—Research Online, Purchase Offline
Also known as webrooming, a shopper behavior of researching where to shop and what to buy online, both before a store visit and in-store purchase


SaaS—Software as a Service
Delivery model in which software is licensed, typically on a subscription basis, and is centrally hosted by the software provider

Sales lift
The resulting increase in sales that can be attributed to a specific campaign

Sampling campaign
Process used by brands and retailers to generate or increase their review content; generally free products are supplied to consumers in exchange for writing a review

A visual representation of business performance that highlights important KPIs and tracks progress

Secondary product images
Images supplemental to the primary product image

Sentiment analysis
Goes beyond simple keyword recognition to identify topics or themes within the review text and gauge the positivity, negativity, or neutrality of those comments

Seller Central
Interface used by marketplace or third-party (3P) distributors on Amazon

SEO—Search Engine Optimization
Process by which brands optimize their keyword search results; applies to both search engines (e.g. Google) and on-site search on retailers' sites

SERP—Search Engine Result Page
Used to refer to on-site search result pages at online retailers

Share of voice
A marketing measurement model that compares the amount of visibility one brand has compared to the entire industry

Ships from store
A supply chain process where retailers use stock from physical stores to fulfill online orders

Ships to store
Similar to buy online, pickup in-store, this is an order fulfillment process where retailers ship online orders to physical retail locations for customers to retrieve, often a free shipping option

Shoppable advertisement
A type of media-based online advertising where users can easily and quickly purchase the items they see in the advertisement i.e. sponsored Instagram posts, YouTube videos, Pinterest boards, etc.

SIOC—Ships-in-own Container
Amazon certification program to validate items that can be shipped in their own containers without additional packaging or boxes

Size of the prize
Estimated amount of sales lift or volume to be gained if strategy is implemented

SKU—Stock keeping unit
A distinctive alphanumeric value assigned to each product in a brand’s portfolio that is used for inventory and tracking purposes

A term for retailers that are typically national in scope, have huge (effectively unlimited) assortments, and have shoppers who know what they want to buy and purchase smaller baskets

Sponsored brands
A type of paid advertisement on Amazon that appears as a banner above all search results; can display a company logo, a custom headline and up to three featured products

Sponsored product ads
A type of advertising campaign through Amazon Advertising (formerly AMS or Amazon Marketing Services) that embeds sponsored products into organic search results with “sponsored” text and on product detail pages under the “Sponsored Products Related To This Item” section

Sponsored/paid search
Search results paid by a vendor or seller to appear for a specific term

Star rating
A product rating left by shoppers, usually expressed with star symbols on a scale of 1-5 stars, with 1 being the lowest score and 5 being the highest score

Subscribe & Save
An Amazon subscription service in which consumers can sign up and receive a discount off the Amazon and Amazon Marketplace everyday low price on eligible products

Syndicated content
Refers to pieces of content that are republished on multiple websites or digital channels

Syndicated review
A review left on a brand's or another retailer site and re-published via Bazaarvoice, PowerReviews, or another syndicator


A system of classification, usually used to refer to how retailers categorize products on their website

Third-party (3P) seller
Refers to manufacturers, merchants or resellers that sell via Amazon's third-party Marketplace

Traffic (or Glance Views)
The number or volume of views a product detail page receives


A sales method that involves suggesting that a customer should upgrade a purchase to a more expensive version in order to increase the purchase value

A measurement of quality that can be used on websites or online storefronts to assess how easy they are for visitors to navigate

User-generated content
Any form of content, such as images, videos, ratings and reviews, that have been posted by users on online platforms such as social media, product detail pages and wikis


Variated product pages
When an online retailer combines certain logical product variants (e.g., flavor, color, scent, size and pack/size configuration) into a single, unified product page; results in less clutter on search result pages and the ability for consumers to easily switch between all available variants when browsing a product page

Vendor Central
Interface used by first-party (1P) manufacturers and distributors on Amazon

Vendor lead time
Duration from when Amazon sends a purchase order to a manufacturer to when a fulfillment center receives the ordered product

Verified credential service provider (CSP)
An authentication system that issues security tokens or electronic credentials to subscribers

Verified Purchase
A trust badge or flag used to identify the authenticity of reviews

VFCC—Vendor-Funded Contra-COGS
Funds from vendors to offset costs, “vendor spend”

Vine review
Independent opinions and reviews provided by Vine Voices on Amazon

Vine Voice
Members of Amazon Vine program who are invited by Amazon to join the program based on their reviewer rank, which is a reflection of the quality and helpfulness of their reviews

Virtual reality
Technology that simulates real-world experiences, for example, exploring virtual product showrooms or trying on merchandise with an avatar

Voice commerce
Technology that allows online shoppers to use voice commands to search and purchase products

Voice Skill
Voice-driven functionalities, created for voice-activated technology, such as Amazon Alexa or Google Home, to enable brands to optimize their products for voice-activated purchases


Goods that are bought from a manufacturer or distributor in bulk and at a lower than retail price for the purpose of reselling them

Winning the Buy Box
For brand manufacturers selling directly to Amazon, “Winning the Buy Box” determines how much of the demand for one of your products is captured directly by Amazon (1P) versus how much is captured by third-party (3P) merchants

A functionality on retailer websites that allows customers to save items they want to own, but do not intend to purchase right away

WMS—Warehouse management system
A type of software that helps businesses manage, direct and optimize inventory and distribution centers


ZMOT—Zero Moment of Truth
Introduced by Google in 2011 to describe online product research behaviors

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